The PYD factor forces Turkey to have a peace process with the PKK

PYD checkpoint

PYD checkpoint

By Dr Aland Mizell:

Let me be clear. I am for peace, and I support any step toward the peace process, because innocent people are payy), the PKK (Kuing the price. Therefore, I salute the BDP (Kurdish Peace Democratic Partrdistan Workers Party), and even the Turkish government for their courage in trying to end violence and bloodshed, but let’s be honest and not delude ourselves.

Based on what we have seen and what has been done in the past, this recent fanfare is an effort to discredit the BDP and to encourage division between the Kurdish parties or groups such as the BDP, the PKK, the KCK (Union of Communities in Kurdistan), and the new Kurdish religious party, the Huda-Par Party. Further, it is an attempt to reduce the number of Kurdish people who are loyal to Oçalan, so that Ocalan does not represent all the Kurds. This is just another tactical game by the Turkish government to block support for the PKK and for the PYD (Democratic Union Party) not to have influence in a post-Assad regime. Additionally, Turkey is trying to figure out who is behind the Kurdish movement and who has influence, in order to go after them internationally and domestically. Turkey is not sincere in regard to having peace with the PKK, and, therefore, the peace process will not last long.

Why do Gulenists and the AKP party support the peace process? It is important to look at their reason for seemingly doing so. They support the peace process not because they really believe that the basic rights of Kurdish people cannot be subject to or approved by the Turkish masses. They support it because they want Turkey to be the hegemonic power in the Middle East and dominate as the superpower; that’s why the Prime Minister is supporting peace and that’s why Glen and his followers are supporting the process. They fail to understand that Kurdish rights are not charity and that the basic rights of the Kurds, like their rights, are inalienable and non-negotiable.

While addressing his party’s parliamentary group last week, the Prime Minister said, “Be assured that we have not and will not do anything that would impart disgrace for our martyrs or bring shame to our nations.” Gülen used the same tone, but perhaps not the exact words, when he supported the peace process. He argued that the government should talk to the PKK without compromising the Turkish national integrity and honor.

Therefore, Turkish nationalism has officially and religiously been publically celebrated, while Kurdish nationalism is associated with factions like the PKK, the KCK, and terrorism, with the consequence of advocates of these positions ending up in jail. If the government is sincere about peace, it should use the language of peace, avoiding words like “terror.” The Turks have written the history, explained God, educated the people, and treated Kurds as subjects, not as human beings. Turks have told Kurds what to watch, what to listen to, whom to worship, whom to vote for, and what is best for them, never allowing Kurds to chose what they want or what they think is best for themselves.

As a result, many Kurds have been ashamed to consider themselves Kurds, especially for the sake of getting a job or being accepted by Turkish society. They never publically say they are Kurds. True, the former Turkish president Ozal was a Kurd, even an all time famous journalist Mehmet Ali Brand was a Kurd, and famous singers like Ibrahim Tatlises, Hulya Avsar, Ceylan, and so many others were Kurds, but the key for them to be famous is not to say publically, “I am a Kurd,” for those who publically admitted their identity have been demonized, criminalized, and exiled to Europe, like Ahmet Kaya and Shiwan Perwer.

But now history is on the side of the Kurds; and perhaps justice is on the side of the Kurds. The question remains, are Kurds ready to write their own history? Did the Kurds learn a lesson from their history or will history repeat itself? Are Kurds ready to take this advantage of the moment to be part of it or will they give up for transitory power or fame? The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) has a very important role in terms of the internationalized Kurdish cause. Will all Kurds be united as one against their oppressor putting aside religion, tribe, language, and politics of the past or will they fight one another again?

For example, the new political party, Huda-Par, has emerged in southeast Turkey espousing Kurdish Islamic ideologies and threatening to take votes away from the BDP and to reduce its power. The BDP is now the main Kurdish party that has defended the rights of Kurds in a democratic way for a long time despite the Turkish regime’s oppression and incarceration of opponents. In spite of all, the BDP still stood up and refused to compromise Kurdish rights. If you look at the Prime Minister’s campaign and the Gulenists’ media campaign against the BDP, they posit that the BDP is not Muslim and accuse the members of being a cult religion. Now Erdogan and Gülen are helping to promote the new Islamic party to organize freely, develop and spread in the Southeast and even in western Turkey. The Turkish government and Gulenists will do anything to advance the party’s work. Their expectation is that the PKK, the BDP, and the Huda – Party will fight against one another.

The Kemalist governments’ long restraint on religion in public life is now gone; in its place, the new Gülen Turkish Muslim missionaries’ effect on political discourse reflects a new chapter in Turkish and Kurdish politics. They put all the blame for the bad treatment of Turkey’s Kurds on the secular Turkish government and try to ignore their own cooperation with the military or their silence against the Turkish regime.  As early as 2005, Prime Minister Erdogan said that, “more democracy, not more repression, is the answer to the Kurds’ long-running grievances,” admitting that Turkey needs “to face up to its past.” Have Turkey, Erdogan, Gülen, and other groups faced up to the Kurdish reality yet? How many Turkish generals, police, soldiers, or civilians are in prison because of the crimes they committed against the Kurds in Southeastern Turkey? How many soldiers or police are in jail because they burned Kurdish villages or even killed children? But still the Islamic government is using the same language about Turkish honor or Turkish people, never acknowledging the need for Kurdish honor and Kurdish justice.

Playing the Kurdish card to pacify the PKK is not new for regional players. We will see in a couple of weeks that the Gulenist media and the AKP-owned media will be busy discussing how effective Oçalan is. The BDP Kurdish political movement will go through a tough test during this short period asking, “How effective is Oçalan? Is he still in charge of the PKK and does the PKK still listen to him? How much influence does he have on the BDP?” For someone who has been in prison for almost fourteen years and not allowed to have access to the outside world except for his lawyer,   (although sometimes even his lawyer could not meet with him) and even then under the Turkish government’s watch, Ocalan is not a free man. In well over a decade since his incarceration, the globe has undergone true changes especially in the Middle East. No longer is Yasser Arafat in charge of Palestinian, the presidents of Egypt and Tunisia have been ousted by uprisings, and Syria is on the brink of upheaval. Also, the Gulenists and AKP have dethroned the Turkish military.

Some looming questions will be answered soon. If the Kurdish parties don’t listen to Oçalan, what will happen? If they do listen to Oçalan, what will happen? Does the fate of more than twenty million Kurds living in Turkey depend on one man who has been in jail for more than fourteen years? Turkey has never sincerely acknowledged the existence of Kurdish problems or accepted that the Kurds have problems in Turkey: Turkey always sees Kurdish issues as an economic problem or a security problem. To delegitimize the Kurdish movement, the government has called it a terrorist problem. If Turkey does not recognize Kurdish problems, how can Turkey find the solution for them? How can a peace process push through? Since the foundation of the Republic of Turkey, Kurds have resisted Turkey’s biased, cruel, and unjust policies toward the Kurds who are asking for social, political and economical freedom. Instead of gaining freedom, as a result of this request, thousands of Kurds have been imprisoned, tortured, kidnapped, or killed. The Turkish government realizes that it cannot take away such God-given rights, especially with the Arab Spring, the Kurds in Iraq having their autonomous region, a new global order emerging, America losing its power in the Middle East, and now the war in Syria bringing chaos.

The Kurds remain the biggest obstacle especially in regard to Gülen’s dream to bring back the Ottoman Empire to the Middle East. First, if the Kurds in Syria get their autonomous region like in Iraq, it might jeopardize the dream of the reemergence of the Ottoman Empire because the regional players or international powers will use the Kurds to weaken Turkish domestic politics. The second reason for Turkey’s paranoid about the Kurds being united is because the Kurds control the major resources of oil and water in the Middle East. That is why Turkey is so involved in Syria’s civil war. Turkey knows Syria is weak and split among its factions thereby giving the Kurds a critical role just like the Kurds in Iraq after the fall of Saddam Hussein.

Disunity among the Arabs and unity between the PKK and the PYD worry Turkey, so this new PYD factor has forced Turkey to have a peace process with the PKK for a short period of time. Turkey does not want Syria to become like Iraq, so that the Kurds in Syria become autonomous. Therefore, both the Assad regime and the Turkish regime have tried to entreat the Kurds to join their side. Turkey has also wanted to have a division between the PKK and its leadership because those who support the PKK have a strong loyalty to Oçalan and see him as an extraordinary person. Turkey’s strategy is to reduce the Kurds’ trust in him.

It is true that the Turkish government and the PKK are tired of war, but if the PKK wants to win this, it must focus on getting rid of the terrorist label and on being a legitimate Kurdish resistance group in the international community’s view. The Turkish government cannot afford to have a war with the PKK especially since, as we all know, Turkey has problems with Iran, Iraq. Syria, and Israel; thus, if Turkey continues to have war with the PKK, Turkey will lose the battle.

In conclusion, the Turkish government has received insurance from the West and the United States by their suppressing the Syrian Kurds. The Turks’ main concern is not about Assad’s being undemocratic, his being a dictator, or his oppressing the citizens, but the main concern for Turkey is to eliminate the Kurdish people there. That is why I do not believe Turkey sincerely wants to have peace with the PKK or the Kurds; instead, Turkey wants to define Kurdish policy in the Middle East. Regarding Syria, Turkey says that Kurdish problems should be solved within the framework of Syria’s territorial integrity and that the rights of Kurds should be guaranteed. This approach was Turkey’s slogan for the Kurds in Iraq under the Saddam regime, but when Saddam was gone and the Kurds got their autonomous region, Turkey did not have any other choice but seemingly to cooperate with the Kurds. It worked with the Kurds to create a division between the Iraqi central government and the KRG government, and now Turkey does not recognize the Iraqi central government, instead directly dealing with the Kurdish Autonomous Region. It sound like history’s divide and conquer rule; but it is an odd application, isn’t it? We all know that the road to peace is not easy, but as long as the peace partners are really committed to peace, then it can be achieved. The Kurdish public does not know much about the peace process and what is going on because everything is being negotiated in secret. We all know peace without the PKK will not happen, but peace with only Oçalan will never be sufficient either.  The Kurdish peace process should not just deal with only one man who has spent more than fourteen years in jail; it should deal with the BDP, the democratically elected representatives. The Turkish government, if it is sincere about peace, should use the language of peace avoiding the word “ terror,” because associating the Kurdish cause and rights with terror delegitimizes it. The Kurdish problem is not a terror problem; it is a problem of human dignity, a problem of not being considered equal to Turks, unless Kurds present themselves as Turks. The new Turkish Constitution and the state should recognize Kurds as a political entity and recognize Kurds as a nation not as mountain Turks. The lack of recognition of the Kurds and, therefore, their existence has not been established within the Turkish public. The Kurds’ entry into the public sphere and politics, therefore, may have had to come via PKK violence. Now, however, the Turkish government and Gulenists should be honest about the peace process, beginning with acceptance of Kurdish social, political, and economical problems. Neither Gulenism nor Ottomanism can be the solution for these problems. Only justice is the solution to the Kurdish problem.

Dr. Aland Mizell is with the University of Mindanao School of Social Science, President of the MCI and a regular contributor to The Kurdistan Tribune,, Mindanao Times and Kurdish Media.You may email the author


Iraqi Kurdistan: European Union Representatives Discuss Ongoing Political Disagreements

Conflict Watch7

Prime Minister Nechirvan Barzani on Monday received a delegation of European Union ambassadors and representatives who are in the Kurdistan Region to discuss ongoing political disagreements in Iraq. The joint European missions are holding consultations with various Iraqi political factions to reduce tensions and understand the role that the EU can play to build confidence.

Leading the visit, the Head of EU Delegation to Iraq Ms Jana Hybaskova, reiterated EU’s interest in Iraq as a whole and its support for the democratic process. The diplomats commended Prime Minister Barzani for the clear and rapid development of Kurdistan and welcomed his efforts in finding peaceful solutions with the Federal Government in Baghdad. Following their visit, a report will be sent to the European Council of Foreign Affairs which will be holding a high-level meeting in Brussels that will include all 27 EU Foreign Ministers.

Prime Minister Barzani welcomed the initiative, underlining his government’s commitment to the Iraqi Constitution, its implementation, and the need for greater international support and engagement to help resolve the deadlock. He touched on the current political crisis, the increasing protests, and the need to resort to dialogue to resolve pending disagreements between Erbil and Baghdad. He reaffirmed that solutions to the ongoing problems and passing key legislation is in the interest of the entire country, adding that federalism is the most viable solution to Iraq. He spoke of the need for more European engagement to develop the region’s infrastructure and in the energy and banking industries. Prime Minister Barzani called for EU’s knowledge and experience to promote and empower the rule of law in Kurdistan.

Both sides also discussed broader developments in the Middle East. As part of their visit, the delegation has also met with President Barzani, Speaker of the Parliament Dr Arsalan Baiz, Minister for the Interior Karim Sinjari, the Head of Foreign Relations Minister Falah Mustafa, Minister for Natural Resources Dr Ashti Hawrami, the KRG Spokesman Safeen Dizayee, and the Deputy Secretary General of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) Dr Barham Salih. The EU representatives at the meeting with Prime Minister Barzani were the ambassadors of Spain, Romania, Slovakia, Poland and the Czech Republic, Germany’s Deputy Head of Mission, the consuls of the UK, France, and Italy, and the Head of the Netherlands Liaison Office.

Iranian Kurdistan: Province Remains Poor And Neglected

Conflict Watch6

Iran’s Kurdistan province is rich in agriculture and other natural resources but remains poor and neglected by Iranian authorities, officials and local media reports say.  The local chamber of commerce in the provincial capital Sanandaj, or Sina in Kurdish, says that 60 percent of the factories in the province have closed down, and production in the rest has declined. Iran’s Mehr New Agency reports that 4.5 million tons of raw materials are extracted annually, but sent to other provinces for processing because of a lack of factories locally. Iranian authorities consider the area a combat zone, maintaining a security alert there since the 1980-88 Iran-Iraq war, forcing businesses to relocate elsewhere.  Dr. Seyyed Hashem Hedayati, a university professor, blames the lack of economic development in the region to an unfair distribution of wealth by authorities. “There isn’t any strategic program for Kurdistan’s economic development. This has harmed the Kurdish areas,” he says.

“The Iranian government has suggested a number of proposals in the industrial and minerals fields, but none applies to Kurdistan,” Hedayati says.  “The government establishes chemical or petrochemical plants in Kurdistan where the raw materials for these units are scarce, therefore there are no chances for their success in Kurdistan,” he adds.  Sina produces a lot of wheat, but because there are very few mills or pasta factories, it is exported to other neighboring cities for processing.  In addition, a province like Isfahan uses marble and other minerals from Sina to produce tiles and other factories. Sirus Shah Mohammadi, the head of the chamber of commerce in Sina, told Rudaw that more than 550 million tons of minerals have been found in the province, and it is believed that another 200 million tons remain underground.

According to the latest statistics from the Iranian Ministry of Industries, Minerals, and Trade the industrial sectors of Sanandaj and Ilam – both Kurdish-majority provinces – remain behind all other regions of Iran. Only about 2,500 people work in the industrial sector in Sina, and only 0.5 percent of Iranian factories are located in the province. Hedayati charges that the government has ignored Iran’s Kurdish regions ever since 1981. “In the areas where the private sector does not or cannot invest, the government has to play this role and invest,” Hedayati says. “This is not taking place in Kurdistan and the businessmen are investing in minor projects that are not helping the economy of the province.”

Solidarity – The Kurds are not alone

By: Dilar Dirik

By: Dilar Dirik

The morning after January 9th, the Turkish media did not hesitate to announce that the murder of Sakine Cansiz, Fidan Dogan, and Leyla Saylemez – “terrorists” as the regime affectionately calls them – was an internal PKK feud. Without challenging this official statement that was not based on any evidence, but on pure propagandistic speculation to demonize the Kurdish people, without questioning this information coming from the regime that is the global number one imprisoner of journalists and activists, the state-affiliated media unanimously endorsed this incitement campaign, and sadly much of the international media echoed these claims. As the investigations continue however, it becomes clear that primary suspect Ömer Güney is a Turkish nationalist with a shadowy past, probably a professional assassin of the Turkish secret service…

While hundreds of thousands of people in the world mourned for this great loss, heavy clashes between Kurds and jihadist fighters, who are (as more and more local sources confirm) funded by the Turkish state, took place in Serê Kaniyê/ Ra’s al-’Ayn (West Kurdistan/Syrian Kurdistan). Simultaneously, the bombings of the Qandil mountains (South Kurdistan/Northern Iraq) by the Turkish army contradict the so-called peace talks between the Turkish state and PKK leader Abdullah Öcalan on Imrali Island. Mysteriously enough, the ferry to Imrali which was suspiciously broken for more than a year, isolating Öcalan from the rest of the world, was finally repaired. This absurd “integrative strategy” as state official Mehmet Ali Sahin referred to it, holds peace talks with the imprisoned head of the PKK, while continuing military operations in Qandil. Kurds within Turkish borders are persecuted, in parliament and on the streets, journalists lose their jobs for reporting on the Kurdish people, while the Kurdish mountains within Iraqi borders are bombed, and Kurds within Syrian borders are attacked. The assassination of the three women in the heart of Paris was an insidious part of the Turkish state’s transnational strategy which aims to eliminate the will of the Kurdish resistance and sabotage any possibility of peace by attacking Kurds on all fronts.

Solidarity from Chile

In a time of world-scattering despair, of abandonment by the “international community“ and the global media, Firat News Agency (ANF) published pictures of Latin American individuals from different nations who expressed their solidarity with the Kurdish people’s pain in the aftermath of the ruthless assassinations of the three wonderful Kurdish women, our dear friends Sakine Cansiz, Fidan Dogan (Rojbin), and Leyla Saylemez. Women and men from Argentina, Cuba, Chile, and Paraguay held signs with their message to the Kurdish nation that express their sorrow for the murder of these strong women, and their solidarity with the Kurdish liberation cause. Pictures of Sakine, Rojbin, and Leyla with flowers in the caring hands of these amazing, encouragingly smiling individuals on the other side of the world mean a lot more than any superficial criticism of Turkey by any Western democracy!

Similarly, many other organizations around the globe have condemned the massacre against the

Kurdish women. Along with European and Turkish leftist parties, many women’s rights and socialist organizations in Peru, Venezuela, Mexico, Brazil, the Philippines, the Basque Country, Catalonia, South Africa, and more have released official statements to express their shared pain with the loss of the three Kurdish women, acknowledging their deaths as a loss for the entirety of humanity and especially struggling nations and women around the world.

During the protests in Paris right after the assassination of our friends, the presence of the overwhelming amount and diversity of flags Solidarity from Cubain the crowd of hundred thousands of people was an homage paid to these wonderful women. Many remarked that even parties that are not necessarily sympathetic to each other appeared and chanted their slogans univocally, as they were united in this moment of anger and pain.

Tamil, Armenian, and Palestinian people who themselves walked in the same shoes as the Kurds in the past and present paid tribute to the lives of three precious freedom advocates that were taken by the same system, the same fascist mentality that oppressed their own people.

Solidarity from Sindh

On Friday, February 01, Sindhi people of the Jeay Sindh Muttahida Mahaz Party marched in different cities across Sindh, holding up signs saying “We strongly condemn Turkish imperialism against Kurdistan and fully support the Kurdish Freedom Struggle”. The activists also strive for their own local independence from Pakistan. Their demonstrations as independent, voluntary manifestations of solidarity with a people they do not have an economic interest in supporting are a matter of acknowledging that one’s own cause is related to the struggle of other people. Today, they marched for Tibet. As I received pictures from their protests, I felt ashamed for knowing so little about their cause and I am committed to learn more.

A few years ago, Sakine Cansiz spoke at a conference in Bilbao, in the Basque Country. The struggle of the Basque people also has many similarities to the Kurdish freedom movement. Institutional education teaches young people to regard any group that struggles for independence as terrorists, outcasts, abnormal deviations from the perfect flawless status quo.

I vaguely remember the Basques being portrayed negatively throughout my high school years in Germany- we did not know better and nobody questioned it. However, it was not the German government, but the Basque people who showed their solidarity with the Kurds during the hunger strike of thousands of political prisoners in Turkey, when they launched 24hour fasts to side with the Kurdish struggle to show them that they are not alone: “Today, we are all Kurdistan”, they said. After the murder of the three women in Paris, people in Bilbao protested with a large transparent for the Kurdish women. Out of solidarity.

Kurdistan is not Iraq

An organization in South Africa, called “Kurdistan Human Rights Action Group South Africa” continuously campaigns for the Kurdish freedom struggle. As most people know, South Africa’s historic fight against the minority tyrant Apartheid regime is one of the greatest human rights struggles and a victory for justice. Nelson Mandela, too, was a political prisoner. He is a symbol of freedom and justice for many people around the world. People like Essa Moosa, a former lawyer of Mandela’s, and Archbishop Desmond Tutu repeatedly compare the Kurdish people’s struggle to their own, and regard Abdullah Öcalan as a “negotiator in chains”, similar to Mandela’s role in the South African liberation.

These are only a few examples of people around the world stepping up for the just cause of the Kurdish people who have not one, but four different oppressors in their natural territories.

A couple of days ago, I came across an amazing Mexican saying: “We did not cross the border. The border crossed us”. MexicanRelax Gringo immigrants are often demonized, for protectionist economic but also racist reasons by the American right. After the Mexican-American War in 1846/48 in which the United States annexed territories that once belonged to the Mexicans, an artificial mental border later became a large, strictly controlled fence, which now threateningly divides the U.S.’s land from Mexico and punishes people who, in search of a better future, sometimes illegally migrate to the same territory that was once their home. From El Paso, Texas you can look through the fence and see Ciudad Juarez, with its houses scarred by the constant threat of drug wars (ironically, the heart and soul of the drug cartels’ market lie in the United States). I was told that many second generation Mexicans in America reject their Mexican heritage and try to assimilate into the American way of life, because they feel ashamed. Similar situations occur all over the world: the victim of the imperialist world order, massacred, impoverished, enslaved, humiliated, or used to strengthen the capitalist system elite is taught to hate his or her identity and to admire the system that caused their misery.

Imperialism, colonialism, fascism, call it what you want. But people across the world become more aware that the nation state paradigm is flawed and can and should not be applied, especially in the most ethnically diverse regions in the world. The ethnic clashes on the African continent are not due to “barbaric tribalism” or “backwardness” as we are often told. They are due to the West’s random colonialist assignment of ethnicities into country borders and categories in which they do not belong. Because colonial interests do not reflect natural human reality. Because corporate exploits do not reflect actual connectivity to culture, society and nature. In so many places around the world, borders have crossed people…

Labelled as “terrorists” by the international community, because they defy conventional notions of national identity, and always mentioned in the same generic sentence in every article that deals with Kurds in Turkey, (“The PKK is regarded as a terrorist organization by the international community, it raised arms against the Turkish state in a conflict that claimed 40,000 lives”), the liberation movement of the Kurds has been abandoned by the international capitalist statist system and never gained anything from the imperialist structures that formed the Middle East.

Solidarity from the Basque Country

The Kurds never had the benefit of help from a powerful hegemon who would have profited from a strong Kurdish nation. 25 years after one of the world’s darkest days, the strategic massacre in Halabja which killed 50,00 villagers under Saddam’s regime with chemical weapons, the Kurds still struggle to get the “Anfal campaign” recognized as genocide. More than one year after the massacre of Roboski, in which Turkey used American drones to wipe out 34 innocent Kurdish villagers, the families seek justice. All that happened was that several money fines were enforced on the Roboski victim’s families and that the commander of the operation received a prize. Kurdish activists are regularly hanged in Iran, a habitual regime practice. Many more await their execution on death row in inhumane prisons.

Struggling, stateless people do not resist out of racist notions of nationalism. They struggle for recognition. They struggle because their history has not been written. Because their individual contribution to the eternal human spirit is not acknowledged. Because their existence is denied. Their language, religion, ethnicity, culture. I would not insist that I am Kurdish, had my existence or worth not been denied by four large countries.

In order to strengthen our own understanding of freedom, we must stay in solidarity with others. In our moments of deepest pain, our international friends did not leave us alone. They marched with us in the icy, cold Paris demonstrations, they hungered with us, they smiled at us with roses in their hands. From Cuba to South Africa to Sindh and the Philippines. We may not have the support of military alliances, economic trade agreements, arms trade clubs. But we have the love, solidarity, and thoughts of amazing individuals all over the world with us. Just when the media, security institutions, and governments, all of which were designed to protect the people, have abandoned us, it was people who live far away from us who held us by the hand and showed us that we are not alone. International solidarity only artificially and forcefully exists in statist, military, economic systems. But it genuinely exists in the hearts of normal people.

I thank all the people around the world who have stepped out to share our pain with us and I cordially invite everyone in the world to join the “Solidarity for the Kurdish People” project on Facebook to express their thoughts for the Kurdish people, who have not had much to smile about lately.

“Surrender is betrayal. But resistance will bring victory”.

Via (Kurdistan Tribune)